Sysmar System for Supporting the Management of Cage Fish Aquaculture, Continuing Developments

The Research and Technology Centre of the University of Kiel has been actively involved in the continuing development of a decision support system (DSS) for assessment of environmental impact, site selection and estimation of carrying capacities of floating net fish farms. 


Fig. 1: Floating net cage Grouper mariculture in Pegametan Bay, Bali

Project Details

In this project the effectiveness of the system in delivering results for fish farming authorities has been assessed. In order to account for the most relevant spatial and temporal issues in cage aquaculture the system is currently being extended to provide “all-in-one” applications including multiple objects (species at different trophic levels and varied culture systems) and incorporate multiple functions (in addition to site selection and carrying capacities account for management of legal aspects). Furthermore the system is being tailored to involve active participation by the public and to deliver outputs of relevance to managers, commercial entities and aquaculture practitioners (see Kapetsky and Aguilar-Manjarrez, 2013). Attention has also been paid to the integration of operational measuring devices and modelling systems for delivering predictions and early warning.

The system has been applied to several small-scale aquaculture operations in Indonesia, China and in the Middle East (Fig. 1). In Indonesia the investigations are underway in Pulai Serai situated in the Riau Archipelago, Pegametan Bay and Celukan Bawang in the North of Bali, Saleh Bay, Lombok, Sumbawa and North Sulawesi (Fig. 2). Figure 3 shows the model grid and suitability map of Saleh Bay in Sumbawa. The developments have been carried out in close cooperation with agencies in Indonesia.


Fig. 2: Location of the sites selected for the continuing development of the DSS


Fig. 3: Model grid and mariculture site suitability map of Saleh Bay, Sumbawa

The results obtained so far confirm the suitability of the system for supporting governmental authorities in the implementation, environmental control and estimation of carrying capacities of environmental sustainable marine fish farming. The results of the applications help in the identification of the main limitations of the system. Improvements and continuing developments are currently underway. 

Research Division

ECOLAB – Coastal Ecosystems


Prof. Dr. R. Mayerle
Research and Technology Centre Westcoast, University of Kiel (FTZ)

Dr. K. Sugama
Research and Development Center for Aquaculture
Agency for Marine Research and Development of Indonesia


MSc K. Niederndorfer (FTZ)
M.Sc. S. van der Wulp (FTZ)
Dr. K-H. Runte (FTZ)
Dr. N. Ladwig (FTZ)


Prof. Dr. F. Foders
Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany

Prof. Dr. Poerbandono
Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia

Dr. Nyoman Adiasmara Giri
Gondol Research Institute of Mariculture, Bali, Indonesia


January 2012 to December 2015


Kapetsky, J.M. & Aguilar-Manjarrez, J. 2013. From estimating global potential for aquaculture to selecting farm sites: perspectives on spatial approaches and trends. In L.G. Ross, T.C. Telfer, L. Falconer, D. Soto & J. Aguilar-Manjarrez, eds. Site selection and carrying capacities for inland and coastal aquaculture, pp. 129–146. FAO/Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Expert Workshop, 6–8 December 2010. Stirling, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings No. 21. Rome, FAO. 282 pp.

Mayerle, R., Windupranata, W. & Hesse K-J. (2009): A Decision Support System for Sustainable Environmental Management of Marine Fish Farming. Yang, Y., Wu, X. Zhou, Y. (eds.)(2009): Cage Aquaculture in Asia. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia. 3rd-8th July, 2006. Hangzhou, China. Vol.2: 370-383. 

Niederndorfer, K.R., Wulp van der S.A., Mayerle, R., Foders, F., Sugama, K., Hanafi, A., Runte, K-H. & Hesse K-J. (2011): A decision support system for site selection and sustainable development of marine fish farming in Indonesia (poster and abstract). Aquaculture Research, 42. Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Symposium, Scottish Aquaculture: A sustainable future. 21th-22th April 2009. Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Windupranata, W. (2007): Development of a Decision Support System for Sustainability Assessment of Mariculture Site Selection. PhD thesis. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science. Christian-Albrechts University Kiel.

Windupranata, W. & Hayatiningsih, I. (2009): A decision support system for sustainable environmental management of marine fish farming. Proceedings of CMT2009, the 6th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism. 23th-26th June 2009. Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa.
Windupranata, W. & Mayerle, R. (2009): Decision Support System for Selection of Suitable Mariculture Site in the Western Part of Java Sea, Indonesia. ITB Journal of Engineering Science, Vol.41b (1): 77-96. 

Wulp van der, S.A., Niederndorfer, K.R., Hesse, K-J., Runte, K-H., Mayerle, R. & Hanafi, A. (2010): Sustainable Environmental MAnagement for Tropical Floating Net Cage Mariculture, A Modelling Approach.  XVIIthWorld Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR). 13th-17th June, 2010. Québec City, Canada.

Van der Wulp, S.A., Niederndorfer, K.R., Hanafi, A., Runte, K.-H. & Mayerle, R. (2010): A Decision Support System for Sustainable Environmental Management of Marine Fish Farming. Qatar Marine Environment Conference: The Festival of the Sea – Qatar 2010. Doha, State of Qatar.