Project description

To interpret procedures in coastal areas, it is necessary to look over time series and data sets in all directions for coherencies on behalf of possible plausible explanations. For this challenge it is essential to work closely interdisciplinary between the FTZ groups.

Examples are (A) shown by the correlation of time series about sperm whale strandings around the North Sea and the suns activity (influencing the climate, and the magnetic field on Earth) and (B) for correlations between water oscillations and temperature changes in tidal flats.

(A) The relation of time series about sperm whale strandings around the North Sea and solar activity was proofed. Results are published in the Journal of Sea Research (53, 319-327; “Are solar activity and sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus strandings around the North Sea related?”) and in The Open Marine Biology Journal ("Solar driven geomagnetic anomalies and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) strandings around the North Sea: an analysis of long term datasets"). A possible link between solar storms and sperm whale miss navigation is decribed in detail by the 29 strandings at the beginning of 2016 at the coasts of the Netherlands, Germany, France and Great Britain in the International Journal of Astrobiology ("Solar storms may trigger sperm whale strandings: explanation approaches for multiple strandings in the North Sea in 2016").

Reports about whale strandings and solar activity can be found for example at BBC, ABC, and Deutsche Welle (DW-World).

(B) Oscillating signals can open the possibility to obtain information about an environment which was penetrated by these signals. Oscillations can also be used to track pathways, eg. to check whether a emitted signal can be detected again at another location. So temperature changes in sediments of tidal flats can be stimulated cyclically by the alternation of day and night, by seasons or by the tides. This can be used to make statements about the physical properties of the sediment body. Some periods (partialtides created by moon and/or sun) detected in the wadden sediments ahaed of Friedrichskoog-Spitze are listed in the following table.

Table of periods found in temperature and pressure. Modified from Ricklefs and Vanselow (2012).

Classification Theor.   Temp. 10cm Depth  Temp. 30cm Depth  Surface Pressure Period composi-
of Period value   Period  Amplitude Period   Amplitude Period  Amplitude   tion
  [h]   [h] [r.u.] [h] [r.u.] [h] [r.u.]  
                   
MSf, SM 354.4 { 364.1 0.443 364.1 0.333     S2-M2
341.3 0.593 341.3 0.426    
MStm 229.4   227.6 0.239 227.6 0.157      
2SM 177.2   176.2 0.140 176.2 0.094     SM+SM, S2-µ2
                   
O1, MK1 25.819 } 25.761 0.389 25.761 0.114 25.92  5.01 M2-K1
MS1 25.744 25.761 6.92 M2-S1
P1, SK1 24.066   24.059 0.459 24.059 0.126 24.094 3.80 S2-K1
S1 24.000 } 23.953 0.468 23.953 0.125 23.953 7.02 S1
K1 23.935 M2-O1, S2-P1
                   
ɛ2, MNS2 13.127   13.128 0.047 13.128 0.0081     M2+N2-S2
µ2, 2MS2 12.872   12.881 0.047 12.881 0.0093 12.881 9.21 M2+M2-S2
α2, M(SK)2 12.438   12.440 0.043 12.440 0.0091 12.450 47.6 M2+S1-K1
M2 12.421   12.412 0.038     12.412 76.9 O1+K1
L2 12.192           12.191 12.1 M2+M2-N2
2SK2 12.033   12.029 0.055 12.029 0.0092     S2+S2-K2
S2 12.000   12.003 0.144 12.003 0.021 12.012 18.5 K1+P1, S1+S1
R2 11.984 } 11.977 0.116 11.977 0.019     K1+S1
K2 11.967 K1+K1
                   
2MK3, MO3 8.386   8.389 0.068 8.389 0.0075 8.393 1.52 M2+O1
2MS3 8.378   8.376 0.071 8.376 0.0074 8.376 1.22 M2+M2-S1
SO3, MP3 8.192 } 8.188 0.183 8.188 0.0187     S2+O1, M2+P1
MS3 8.185     M2+S1
MK3 8.177   8.176 0.122 8.176 0.0137 8.176 1.56 M2+K1
                   
M4 6.210   6.213 0.020     6.21 7.47 M2+M2
MS4 6.103   6.102 0.057 6.102 0.0043 6.104 3.86 M2+S2
MK4 6.095   6.095 0.039         M2+K2
2MS5 4.934   4.934 0.038 4.934 0.0025     M2+M2+S1
MSK5 4.863   4.863 0.021         M2+S2+K1
M6 4.140           4.140 5.13 M2+M2+M2

 

The Table shows for a simple addition of all tide amplitude factors (detected by FFT analysis) a theoretical maximum temperature input of 7.6°C in a depth of 10 cm and of 3°C in a depth of 30 cm.

Results of this analysis are published in Ricklefs and Vanselow (2012, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Abstract, doi: 10.1016 / j.ecss.2011.09.015) and in the Jahresbericht 2010/2011 pages 61-65. A temperature lance (developed together with the company JeBo Elektronik) and the flushing of such a lance in the sediment is shown in the following figure.

Lanze-Watteinsatz-Vanselow.jpg

Image of a temperature lance (left) and of  flushing it into the sediment. © K. H. Vanselow, FTZ

 

Further informations about this project are at the website TeLeWatt - temperature above pipes and cables in tidal flat sediments.

Staff:

Klaus Heinrich Vanselow, Klaus Ricklefs