Project Details

The project was funded jointly by the German Ministry of Education and Research, and the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries from 2007 to 2011. The decision support system (DSS) was developed for the assessment of the impacts, selection of optimum sites and determination of carrying capacities of net cage farms. SYSMAR integrates GIS technologies, in-situ measurements and numerical simulation models and remote sensing information.

SYSMAR comprises mainly of three modules. In the first module, coastal areas are pre-screened for sites suitable for marine fish farming on a regional scale considering physical and chemical properties, sediment characteristics and coastal utilization. The second module deals with estimates of carrying capacities. Physical, environmental, production and socio.economic carrying capacities are estimated. The third module provides an analysis of the socio-economic benefits. The cost of construction and operational costs are accounted for. Commercially available software has been used to facilitate the continuing development of the system. The system is operable as a computerized user-interface to allow application by decision makers.

SYSMAR was applied to Pergametan Bay, North of Bali (Fig. 1). Initially the sites suited for the installation of fish farms in the bay were identified. The areas suited for fish farming activities are indicated in Figure 2. About 90 hectares of Pegametan Bay are suited for floating net cage mariculture based on adopted criteria and used information. A map with the maximum production rates in the area is shown in Fig. 3. Criteria based on the levels of water quality within the bay and taking into account the deposition under the farms were used. The proposed layouts of the farms are shown in Fig. 4.


Fig. 2: Suitability map. The location of the currently existing farms are plotted as black dots


Fig. 3: Maximum production rates in best location


Fig. 4: Proposed layout of the farms for the recommended production rate

Research division

ECOLAB – Coastal Ecosystems


Prof. Dr. R. Mayerle and Dr. K-J. Hesse
Research and Technology Centre Westccoast, University of Kiel (FTZ)

Dr. Adi Hanafi
Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture (GRIM), Bali, Indonesia


M.Sc. S.A. van der Wulp (FTZ)
M.Sc. K. Niederndorfer (FTZ)
Dr. K.-H. Runte (FTZ)
Dr. N. Ladwig (FTZ)

Project Partners

Dr. K. Sugama
Research and Development Center for Aquaculture
Agency for Marine Research and Development of Indonesia

Prof. Federico Foders
Kiel Institute for the World Economy

Dr. Poerbandono
Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

Dr. Nyoman Adiasmara Giri
Gondol Research Institute of Mariculture, Bali, Indonesia




German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant number:  03F0469A)
Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries


Mayerle, R., Hanafi, A., Hesse K-J., Wulp van der, S.A., Niederndorfer, K.R., Runte, H-H., Ladwig, N., Giri, A., Kleinfeld, F. & Sugama, K. (2011): Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit Indonesien. BMBF-Programm SPICE II. SYSMAR - Integriertes System für das Management einer ökologisch und sozio-ökonomisch nachhaltigen Marikultur in Indonesien. Teilprojekt 1. FKZ 03F0469A. 01.09.2007-31.12.2010. Abschlussbericht.


Mayerle, R., Windupranata, W. & Hesse, K.J. (2009): A Decision Support System for a Sustainable Environmental Management of Marine Fish Farming. Yang, Y., Wu, X.Z. & Zhou, Y.Q. (eds.) (2009): Cage Aquaculture in Asia: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia, 3-8 July 2006, Hangzhou, China (Vol. 2), 370-383. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, and Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Windupranata, W. & Mayerle, R. (2009): Decision Support System for Selection of Suitable Mariculture Site in the Western Part of Java Sea, Indonesia. ITB Journal of Engineering Science, Vol.41b(1). 77-96.

Windupranata, W. & Hayatiningsih, I. (2009): Optimization of Mariculture Site in the Tourism Area of Seribu Islands, Java Sea, Indonesia. Proceedings of CMT 2009, the 6 th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, 23-26 June 2009, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa. 30-137.

Niederndorfer, K.R., van der Wulp, S.A., Mayerle, R., Foders, F., Sugama, K., Hanafi, A., Runte, K.-H. & Hesse, K.-J. (2009): A Decision Support System for Site Selection and Sustainable Development of Marine Fish Farming in Indonesia (Abstract). International Symposium Scottish Aquaculture: A Sustainable Future. 21-22 April 2009, Edinburgh, Scotland. Aquaculture Research, special edition.

Van der Wulp, S.A., Niederndorfer, K.R., Mayerle, R., Hesse, K.-J., Runte, K.-H. & Hanafi, A. (2010): Sustainable Environmental Management for Tropical Floating Net Cage Mariculture, A Modeling Approach. Proceedings of CIGR 2010, The XVIIth World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural engineering (CIGR), June 13-17 2010, Quebec City, Canada.

Ihsan, Y. N., Hesse, K.-J., Holmgren, N. & Schulz, C. (submitted): A Comparison of Nutrient Fluxes in Monoculture and Polyculture Systems for Shrimp and Seaweed Production. J. World Aquacult. Soc.